Multiple types of drainage systems can be established. They each solve problems of excess or standing water that can cause erosion and promote insect populations such as disease-carrying mosquitos. Depending on the situation, drain systems can be combined. There are three primary types, surface, subsurface and slope, with some variations depending on where they’re used and the amount of water that needs to be controlled.

Surface Drain

This type of system is designed to remove water from the ground’s surface. The system typically uses an open concrete conduit or gravel-lined pathway to divert water to drains or another location.

A surface drain system can also be installed to empty into a tank or other receptacle beneath the soil’s surface. These are sometimes referred to as dry wells. The receptacle has perforations to allow the water to drain and be absorbed into the water table.

Swale Drain

Another type of surface drain, it utilizes a shallow ditch lined with turf or other vegetation to slow run off, mitigate erosion, and divert waterflow. They help keep storm drains from being overwhelmed if there’s a heavy rain.

Subsurface Drain

Also known as a French drain, these are installed beneath the surface of the ground. They use pipes covered by a layer of soil to remove excess water. Despite the name, they’re not French and are named after Massachusetts Judge Henry French, who wrote about them in 1859.

Slope Drain

The systems are designed to carry water away from a structure and down a slope through a pipe. The pipe is anchored to the slope Gutters and drains attached to homes and businesses are an example of one type of slop drainage.

Consult a Professional

Diverting and directing water may seem like an easy task, but there are multiple variables to be considered. It isn’t appropriate as a DIY project and individuals can inadvertently cause damage to surrounding properties. Installing an effective drain system requires the expertise of a professional.

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